The procedures and techniques commonly encountered in anaesthesia are different when carried out on obese patients. The obesity makes some of them more difficult, or even impossible to perform. Airway management and drug dosage are also specific. The aim of this algorithm is to show you the entire process of anaesthesia in order to realize the important moments when considering patient’s body size is necessary.
Crush syndrome also called compression syndrome, is a condition caused by massive compression of soft tissues, especially muscles, resulting in rhabdomyolysis (destruction of muscles), edemas and a risk of hyperkalemia. Myoglobin is released from the injured muscles and causes a severe kidney damage and acute renal failure. This algorithm describes treatment of a patient suffering from crush syndrome, step by step, beginning from the lay first aid up to the final care in hospital.
The antibiotic therapy is an important part of care in all medical specialities. That's why it is necessary to know the general principles. The treatment should be efficient enough, but targeted at the same time. It's essential to think about risks of developing bacterial resistence. This algorithm will lead you through case of a concrete patient, from indication of the therapy to the solution of complications.
When injuries occur, life-threatening bleeding may develop with no obvious external signs, which could warn you. Our algorithm is based on the actual case history about the patient who suffered from a serious car accident.
Other version of this algorithm: Serious head injuries - invasive monitoring, Invasive venous catheterization of critical patient - 2019
27. 4. 2016 | Jana Kubalová, MD, Kateřina Vaníčková, MD, Ľudmila Floreková, Michal Hrubý
Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the most common accidental poisoning. CO has very strong binding to hemoproteins and blocks their function. It causes severe tissue hypoxia. Poisoning can result in severe neurological disability, worstly can lead to patient’s death. CO binding is reversible, well-timed and adequate therapy is necessary.
Acute pancreatitis is a high-risk condition to which we must approach from the first suspicion as to the condition potentially life-threatening. Symptoms often vary and can cause severe and long-term complications, or even death. In the algorithm you can practice basic principles of diagnosis and therapy of acute pancreatitis, in an effort to minimize the risk of potential death and cure the patient. At the same time you will be explained why some diagnostic and therapeutic processes are more suitable than others, and in which order it is advisable to apply them.
Embolism is a life threatening condition caused by particles lodging in the bloodstream and causing obstruction. According to the origin and type of particles, fat embolism, air embolism, thrombembolism, cellular embolism (metastasis, amniotic fluid) and subcellular embolism (fragmented cells) may occur. There are different causes and risk factors for each kind of embolism. Some forms may occur as a severe complication during surgery. The algorithm describes embolism during neurosurgical operation with focus on the most common symptoms, early diagnosis and proper management.
Acute lower limb ischemia is a serious disease with high morbidity and mortality if left untreated. There are about 150 cases of this disease on 1 million inhabitants per year. It is sudden disease that can lead to an amputation of a limb because of low blood flow and perfusion of the tissues. There are two basic causes of this disease. It is embolisation into the arteries of the limbs and in-situ thrombosis on a plaque of atherosclerosis. Correct diagnosis and early started therapy influence prognosis of the patients. You can solve a diagnosis, treatment, complications and following therapy in our algorithm.
Acute renal failure (ARF) is a suddenly developing potentially reversible decrease in renal function for pre-renal, renal, or post-renal causes. The morbidity and mortality associated with ARF remains to be high. Our algorithm introduces you to the management of patient with ARF and teach you about its complications and their treatment.
Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy are the most common pediatric surgical procedures. Tonsillectomy means the surgical removal of the tonsils - paired lymphoid tissues situated on both sides of the back of your throat. These immunocompetent tissues are in the first line to defend the body against ingested or inhaled pathogens. When tonsils become enlarged or inflamed they may require a surgical removal. Indications for tonsillectomy include recurrent pharyngotonsillitis, chronic tonsillitis, hemorrhagic tonsillitis, peritonsillar abscess, streptococcal carriage, dysphagia, halitosis, and the suspicion of malignant disease.
Every year, more than 150 people die in snow avalanches in Europe and Northern America. Most of them are climbers, skiers and skialpinists. Many of these deaths can be prevented by preventive measures, or by fast extrication of the buried people, appropriate first aid, on-scene triage, and subsequent highly specialized treatment in a suitable healthcare facility. Using this algorithm, you will learn how to proceed during a mountain rescue for a victim completely buried by an avalanche, which has these parameters: the width of the riving 200 m, height breakaway from 0.2 to 1.8 m, length 600 m avalanches, deposition height of 6 m, the estimated weight of 9.960 tons of snow.
Firstly, you will play a role of a member of a group of skialpinists surprised by an avalanche while staying in the Krkonoše mountains. Then, you are going to become a prehospital physician responsible for the on-scene treatment given to people extricated by the mountain rescue service.
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a group of chronical painful conditions, which are one of common complications after limb injuries. Significant role at its development has hyperactivation of sympaticus (defect in function of autonomic nervous system), which leads to defect in microcirculation and also defect in the pain management. Altogether it leads up to development of neurogenic inflammation. If CRPS is left untreated, irreversible changes evolve and cause permanent invalidisation of the patient. Try to go through the algorithm, determine the diagnosis according to the typical clinical symptoms and indicate appropriate therapy for CRPS on time.
Although cardiac arrest in pregnancy is rare, it can be really unpleasant situation for every doctor. There are a lot of causes, e.g. cardiac failure, bleeding, coagulation disorder or trauma. In this algoritm you can go through basic and advanced life support of mother with emphasis on specifics in resuscitation in pregnancy according to the quidelines.
Acute mountain sickness (AMS) can affect all of us already at an altitude of 2500 MASL as a result of the reduced amount of oxygen in air. Initial symptoms may progress to life-threatening diseases such as high altitude cerebral or pulmonary edema. Although we can effectively prevent AMS due to proper acclimatization, sometimes AMS can also affect the professional and experienced climbers.
Act as a member of the alpine expedition in our algorithm and try to solve this case at different stages of this disease.