Postdural puncture headache is one of the complications of central blockades. It arises most often in connection with a previous puncture of epidural or spinal space as a result of perforation of the dura mater and arachnoidea. A cerebrospinal fluid is leaking from the gap in dura mater. It leads to a drop of pressure of cerebrospinal fluid and it can cause headaches. The following algorithm will try to bring the diagnosis and the treatment of this condition.
Sufficient analgesia in the practitioners´ ambulance is often underestimated part of daily routine in patients care. We can often see underdosing of analgesics due to fear of overdose or addiction to opioids.Therefore, we present here the algorithm with a possible therapeutic procedure for chronic hip pain.
Syncope may be defined as a sign of short term loss of consciousness and/or postural muscle tone. It may be observed in patients with no cardiovascular diseases of organic origin but it can also be a sign of other serious diseases. Diagnosis of syncope is a tricky one, a lot of it depends on thorough case history taking and physical examination. According to research, up to 25-35% of syncope cases can be diagnosed from case history, or it may at least indicate relevant clinical testing.
Severe allergic reaction is life-threatening. It may be observed after insect bite, after eating specific food or using some drugs. Most important is early diagnosis and immediate treatment. This algorithm presents possibility of diagnosis and treatment of this severe state.
The algorithm describes a real situation of a toxic reaction to local anesthetic at the dentist. It generally shows the development from relative overdose to absolute overdose of local anestehticum. The algorithm should thus also contribute to adoptation of important procedures when solving such an acute state.
Local anaesthetics are widely used by anaesthesiologists, surgeons or general practitioners. There is a risk of severe toxic reactions, which may lead to fatal sequels. This algorithm presents possibilities of minimalisation of the risk and offers the guideline by treatment of severe cardiovascular complication according to current opinions.
The algorithm describes a real situation at the dentist - the extraction of the wisdom teeth combined with a pre-operative complication: a syncope complication. Each step of such a situation is outlined to comprehend the whole complexity of the syncope. Sub-questions then one by one describe the evolving state of the patient and offer solutions to particular steps. The correct answer to each of the questions will enable every student to finish the algorithm successfully.
The algorithm describes two painful situations in orofacial areas. The first focuses on an acute postoperative pain after third molar surgery and recommended strategy for analgesia. The second situation concentrates on a chronic pain in temporomandibular joint. Besides, the second one also offers a therapy in various stages of the disease. Students should learn (about) not only recommended principles of conservative treatment, but also possible subsequent surgical therepy.
Myocardial infarction (heart attack) is one of the most common causes of death in our population. Many risk factors contributing to its genesis are spread widely such as smoking, obesity, junk food, lack of exercise, high blood pressure and diabetes mellitus. Our algorithm presents you the right way to diagnose and treat heart attack as so as the most frequent mistakes that can endanger the patient.
Everyone can be involved in a serious car accident. Our algorithm offers you sequence of actions by serious head injury and its solution using invasive approaches.
Other version of this algorithm: Invasive venous catheterization of critical patient - 2019, Traumatic life-threatening hemmorhage
20. 12. 2011 | Peter Bakalík, MD, Prof. Petr Štourač, MD, PhD, Miloš Hons, Zdeňek Chvátal, Martin Chovanec, Eva Uvízlová, Martin Vašíček
The algorithm focuses on one of the themes of first aid (Basic Life Support, BLS) directly endangered the patient's life. His comletation can be useful for both the layman and the person in acute situations already versed. The algorithm was created in accordance with the current guidelines of the European Resuscitation Council 2010.
First Aid in children already bring to the trespassing acute stress and severe emotional component. Come and try out at home possible realistic scenario to help the child, which is described in the current recommendations of the European Resuscitation Council.