Epilepsy is a disease characterized by recurring seizures of uncontrolled brain neuron excitatory activity, resulting in a cerebral dysfunction. The seizures can be caused as the result of a head trauma, brain tumor or inflammation, brain stroke or due to different metabolic changes. They can also be idiopathic. Most of the seizures end spontaneously, but some continue for a long time or the patient remains unconscious. This situation is called the status epilepticus and it is considered to be a life threatening situation.
Tachyarrytmias are disorders of heart rhytm with heart rate more than 100 bpm. The algorithm is focused on supraventricular tachyarythmia nad goes through the situation of SVT with narrow QRS complex and regular rhytm to deblocking atrial flutter with the transfer to ventricle 1:1. It will help us to clarify recommended therapeutic procedures in this situation.
Lung carcinoma is the most common tumor in men and the third most frequent in women. Surgical procedure is one of the standard therapeutic methods. Because this type of surgery intereferes with ventilating functions, it is necessary to approach this procedure specifically from the anesthesiological point of view. This algorithm aims mainly at the choice of preoperative exams of patient’s respiratory system and equipment used during intubation - here plays a significant role the Double Lumen Tube . Moreover, the algorithm deals with the choice of ventilation mode as well as with other specific aspects of this type of surgery. Last but not least, it suggests a situation when the ventilation and oxygenation starts to fail despite the targeted interventions of the anesthesiologist.
Febrile seizures are an age-related phenomenon. Manifestation is characterised by convulsive/cramping states typically generalised tonic-clonic seizures with the possibility of loss of consciousness, disorders of vegetative and regulatory functions. The origin of the febrile convulsions is connected with onset and initial phase of an infectious disease. Within the scope of classification we distinguish simple and complicated seizures with more serious course and consequences which can progress into serious life threatening epileptic state (lat. status epilepticus). Differential diagnostics is based on exclusion of neuroinfectious condition, convulsive states of non-infectious origin, epileptic seizures and febrile syncope.
To think about the most serious complication of Abdominal aortic aneurysm - the rupture is very important because even banal difficulties such as backache, epigastric pain or vomiting could be a harbinger of a lethal end. After asymptomatic period, condition can lead to hemorrhagic shock in few hours. Due to risk factors which are widely distributed in our population (smoking, hypertension, atherosclerosis, age) and the prevalence of aneurysm which is not negligible (2.5 – 5 %), the risk of rupture is very high. It depends on size – the risk of rupture 6 cm aneurysm in 5 years is 33 %, in case of aneurysm with diameter above 7 cm is up to 95 %.
The Mountain Rescue Service in Czech Republic provides more than 6000 rescue operations every year. About a half of the accidents occures in ski slope skiing. The most common injuries are joint injuries, contusions and fractures. Our algorithm introduces you to the management of the ski slope injury from the layman´s first aid to the professional prehospital and hospital care.
Spinal trauma is an injury of the spine and spinal cord. If the patient suffers from polytrauma e.g., the symptoms of life-threatening injuries may mask the symptoms of spinal injury and spinal cord injury can develop by careless manipulation with the patient. If there is a history of sudden acceleration or deceleration (traffic accidents, falls, sports injuries), there is always the possibility of spinal injury. Our algorithm takes you through spinal trauma from first aid to late complications.
Cancer pain significantly reduces the quality of life of patients with cancer. Therapy of cancer pain is a conjoined part of cancer complex care. Despite this fact, enough attention is quite often not paid to adequate treatment. The algorithm refers to the fundamental principles of the treatment of cancer pain in accordance with recent recommendations.
Labour pain appearing during uterine contractions is a reaction of a pregnant woman’s organism preparing for labour. Intensity of labour pain is individual, because perception of pain is affected by somatic, mental and social factors. Therefore, approach to analgesia must be individual as well. Currently, any of many farmacological and non-farmacological means can be used. Epidural analgesia is one of the most commonly used means, lately accompanied by remifentanil. Correctly indicated and administered labour analgesia may help to reduce incidence of labour complications at both mother and child.
Cerebrovascular accident is an acute condition, which is caused by interruption of blood supply of some part of the brain. Ischemic CVA includes 80% cases of all CVA and it is result of occlusion blood vessel by a thrombus. The cells of the brain will start to die without oxygen supply, we also lose the functions which are controlled by affected area. Clinical symptoms of patients include motional dysfunctions of facial muscles or limbs, balance disorders, sudden intensive headache, vision disorderes or speaking problems. Essencial factor of successful treatment is a quick and right diagnosis of ischemic CVA because of limited interval for tPA application. Consequences of the ictus correlate with localisation and extend of damaged tissue.